qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound package

Submodules

qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B module

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.Constants[source]

Bases: object

These constants are defined in sa_api.h as part of the the Signal Hound SDK

SA_MAX_DEVICES = 8
saDeviceTypeNone = 0
saDeviceTypeSA44 = 1
saDeviceTypeSA44B = 2
saDeviceTypeSA124A = 3
saDeviceTypeSA124B = 4
sa44_MIN_FREQ = 1.0
sa124_MIN_FREQ = 100000.0
sa44_MAX_FREQ = 4400000000.0
sa124_MAX_FREQ = 13000000000.0
sa_MIN_SPAN = 1.0
sa_MAX_REF = 20
sa_MAX_ATTEN = 3
sa_MAX_GAIN = 2
sa_MIN_RBW = 0.1
sa_MAX_RBW = 6000000.0
sa_MIN_RT_RBW = 100.0
sa_MAX_RT_RBW = 10000.0
sa_MIN_IQ_BANDWIDTH = 100.0
sa_MAX_IQ_DECIMATION = 128
sa_IQ_SAMPLE_RATE = 486111.111
sa_IDLE = -1
sa_SWEEPING = 0
sa_REAL_TIME = 1
sa_IQ = 2
sa_AUDIO = 3
sa_TG_SWEEP = 4
sa_MIN_MAX = 0
sa_AVERAGE = 1
sa_LOG_SCALE = 0
sa_LIN_SCALE = 1
sa_LOG_FULL_SCALE = 2
sa_LIN_FULL_SCALE = 3
sa_AUTO_ATTEN = -1
sa_AUTO_GAIN = -1
sa_LOG_UNITS = 0
sa_VOLT_UNITS = 1
sa_POWER_UNITS = 2
sa_BYPASS = 3
sa_AUDIO_AM = 0
sa_AUDIO_FM = 1
sa_AUDIO_USB = 2
sa_AUDIO_LSB = 3
sa_AUDIO_CW = 4
TG_THRU_0DB = 1
TG_THRU_20DB = 2
sa_REF_UNUSED = 0
sa_REF_INTERNAL_OUT = 1
sa_REF_EXTERNAL_IN = 2
class qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.ExternalRefParameter(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any)[source]

Bases: qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.TraceParameter

Parameter that handles the fact that external reference can only be enabled but not disabled.

From the manual:

Once a device has successfully switched to an external reference it must remain using it until the device is closed, and it is undefined behavior to disconnect the reference input from the reference BNC port.

set_raw(value: bool) None[source]

set_raw is called to perform the actual setting of a parameter on the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if set_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a set method on the parameter instance.

__getitem__(keys: Any) qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Slice a Parameter to get a SweepValues object to iterate over during a sweep

__str__() str

Include the instrument name with the Parameter name if possible.

property abstract: Optional[bool]
property full_name: str

Name of the parameter including the name of the instrument and submodule that the parameter may be bound to. The names are separated by underscores, like this: instrument_submodule_parameter.

get_ramp_values(value: Union[float, Sized], step: Optional[float] = None) Sequence[Union[float, Sized]]

Return values to sweep from current value to target value. This method can be overridden to have a custom sweep behaviour. It can even be overridden by a generator.

Parameters
  • value – target value

  • step – maximum step size

Returns

List of stepped values, including target value.

get_raw() Any

get_raw is called to perform the actual data acquisition from the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if get_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a get method on the parameter instance.

property gettable: bool

Is it allowed to call get on this parameter?

increment(value: Any) None

Increment the parameter with a value

Parameters

value – Value to be added to the parameter.

property instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the first instrument that this parameter is bound to. E.g if this is bound to a channel it will return the channel and not the instrument that the channel is bound too. Use root_instrument() to get the real instrument.

property inter_delay: float

Delay time between consecutive set operations. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay between sets.

Getter

Returns the current inter_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the inter_delay.

Raises
load_metadata(metadata: Dict[Any, Any]) None

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

Parameters

metadata – Metadata to load.

property name: str

Name of the parameter. This is identical to short_name().

property name_parts: List[str]

List of the parts that make up the full name of this parameter

property post_delay: float

Delay time after start of set operation, for each set. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay after every set. One might think of post_delay as how long a set operation is supposed to take. For example, there might be an instrument that needs extra time after setting a parameter although the command for setting the parameter returns quickly.

Getter

Returns the current post_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the post_delay.

Raises
property raw_value: Any

Note that this property will be deprecated soon. Use cache.raw_value instead.

Represents the cached raw value of the parameter.

Getter

Returns the cached raw value of the parameter.

restore_at_exit(allow_changes: bool = True) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to restore the value of a parameter after a with block.

By default, the parameter value may be changed inside the block, but this can be prevented with allow_changes=False. This can be useful, for example, for debugging a complex measurement that unintentionally modifies a parameter.

Example

>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.restore_at_exit():
...     p.set(3)
...     print(f"value inside with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 3
>>> print(f"value after with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.restore_at_exit(allow_changes=False):
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
property root_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the fundamental instrument that this parameter belongs too. E.g if the parameter is bound to a channel this will return the fundamental instrument that that channel belongs to. Use instrument() to get the channel.

set_to(value: Any, allow_changes: bool = False) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to temporarily set a parameter to a value. By default, the parameter value cannot be changed inside the context. This may be overridden with allow_changes=True.

Examples

>>> from qcodes import Parameter
>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.set_to(3):
...     print(f"p value in with block {p.get()}")  # prints 3
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
>>> print(f"p value outside with block {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.set_to(3, allow_changes=True):
...     p.set(5)  # now this works
>>> print(f"value after second block: {p.get()}")  # still prints 2
property settable: bool

Is it allowed to call set on this parameter?

property short_name: str

Short name of the parameter. This is without the name of the instrument or submodule that the parameter may be bound to. For full name refer to full_name().

snapshot(update: Optional[bool] = False) Dict[Any, Any]

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata. DO NOT override this method if you want metadata in the snapshot instead, override snapshot_base().

Parameters

update – Passed to snapshot_base.

Returns

Base snapshot.

snapshot_base(update: Optional[bool] = True, params_to_skip_update: Optional[Sequence[str]] = None) Dict[Any, Any]

State of the parameter as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class qcodes.utils.helpers.NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

If the parameter has been initiated with snapshot_value=False, the snapshot will NOT include the value and raw_value of the parameter.

Parameters
  • update – If True, update the state by calling parameter.get() unless snapshot_get of the parameter is False. If update is None, use the current value from the cache unless the cache is invalid. If False, never call parameter.get().

  • params_to_skip_update – No effect but may be passed from superclass

Returns

base snapshot

property snapshot_value: bool

If True the value of the parameter will be included in the snapshot.

property step: Optional[float]

Stepsize that this Parameter uses during set operation. Stepsize must be a positive number or None. If step is a positive number, this is the maximum value change allowed in one hardware call, so a single set can result in many calls to the hardware if the starting value is far from the target. All but the final change will attempt to change by +/- step exactly. If step is None stepping will not be used.

Getter

Returns the current stepsize.

Setter

Sets the value of the step.

Raises
  • TypeError – if step is set to not numeric or None

  • ValueError – if step is set to negative

  • TypeError – if step is set to not integer or None for an integer parameter

  • TypeError – if step is set to not a number on None

sweep(start: float, stop: float, step: Optional[float] = None, num: Optional[int] = None) qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Create a collection of parameter values to be iterated over. Requires start and stop and (step or num) The sign of step is not relevant.

Parameters
  • start – The starting value of the sequence.

  • stop – The end value of the sequence.

  • step – Spacing between values.

  • num – Number of values to generate.

Returns

Collection of parameter values to be iterated over.

Return type

SweepFixedValues

Examples

>>> sweep(0, 10, num=5)
 [0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0]
>>> sweep(5, 10, step=1)
[5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0]
>>> sweep(15, 10.5, step=1.5)
>[15.0, 13.5, 12.0, 10.5]
property underlying_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Returns an instance of the underlying hardware instrument that this parameter communicates with, per this parameter’s implementation.

This is useful in the case where a parameter does not belongs to an instrument instance that represents a real hardware instrument but actually uses a real hardware instrument in its implementation (e.g. via calls to one or more parameters of that real hardware instrument). This is also useful when a parameter does belong to an instrument instance but that instance does not represent the real hardware instrument that the parameter interacts with: hence root_instrument of the parameter cannot be the hardware_instrument, however underlying_instrument can be implemented to return the hardware_instrument.

By default it returns the root_instrument of the parameter.

validate(value: Any) None

Validate the value supplied.

Parameters

value – value to validate

Raises
  • TypeError – If the value is of the wrong type.

  • ValueError – If the value is outside the bounds specified by the validator.

label: str = ()

Label of the data used for plots etc.

unit = ()

The unit of measure. Use '' for unitless.

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.FrequencySweep(name: str, instrument: qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.SignalHound_USB_SA124B, sweep_len: int, start_freq: float, stepsize: float)[source]

Bases: qcodes.instrument.parameter.ArrayParameter

Hardware controlled parameter class for SignalHound_USB_SA124B.

Instrument returns an array of powers for different frequencies

Parameters
  • name – parameter name

  • instrument – instrument the parameter belongs to

  • sweep_len – Number of steps in sweep

  • start_freq – Starting frequency

  • stepsize – Size of a frequency step

get()

executes a sweep and returns magnitude and phase arrays

set_sweep(sweep_len: int, start_freq: float, stepsize: float) None[source]

Set the setpoints of the Array parameter representing a frequency sweep.

Parameters
  • sweep_len – Number of points in the sweep

  • start_freq – Starting frequency of the sweep

  • stepsize – Size of step between individual points

get_raw() numpy.ndarray[source]

get_raw is called to perform the actual data acquisition from the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if get_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a get method on the parameter instance.

__str__() str

Include the instrument name with the Parameter name if possible.

property abstract: Optional[bool]
property full_name: str

Name of the parameter including the name of the instrument and submodule that the parameter may be bound to. The names are separated by underscores, like this: instrument_submodule_parameter.

get_ramp_values(value: Union[float, Sized], step: Optional[float] = None) Sequence[Union[float, Sized]]

Return values to sweep from current value to target value. This method can be overridden to have a custom sweep behaviour. It can even be overridden by a generator.

Parameters
  • value – target value

  • step – maximum step size

Returns

List of stepped values, including target value.

property gettable: bool

Is it allowed to call get on this parameter?

property instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the first instrument that this parameter is bound to. E.g if this is bound to a channel it will return the channel and not the instrument that the channel is bound too. Use root_instrument() to get the real instrument.

property inter_delay: float

Delay time between consecutive set operations. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay between sets.

Getter

Returns the current inter_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the inter_delay.

Raises
load_metadata(metadata: Dict[Any, Any]) None

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

Parameters

metadata – Metadata to load.

property name: str

Name of the parameter. This is identical to short_name().

property name_parts: List[str]

List of the parts that make up the full name of this parameter

property post_delay: float

Delay time after start of set operation, for each set. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay after every set. One might think of post_delay as how long a set operation is supposed to take. For example, there might be an instrument that needs extra time after setting a parameter although the command for setting the parameter returns quickly.

Getter

Returns the current post_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the post_delay.

Raises
property raw_value: Any

Note that this property will be deprecated soon. Use cache.raw_value instead.

Represents the cached raw value of the parameter.

Getter

Returns the cached raw value of the parameter.

restore_at_exit(allow_changes: bool = True) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to restore the value of a parameter after a with block.

By default, the parameter value may be changed inside the block, but this can be prevented with allow_changes=False. This can be useful, for example, for debugging a complex measurement that unintentionally modifies a parameter.

Example

>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.restore_at_exit():
...     p.set(3)
...     print(f"value inside with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 3
>>> print(f"value after with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.restore_at_exit(allow_changes=False):
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
property root_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the fundamental instrument that this parameter belongs too. E.g if the parameter is bound to a channel this will return the fundamental instrument that that channel belongs to. Use instrument() to get the channel.

set_raw(value: Any) None

set_raw is called to perform the actual setting of a parameter on the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if set_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a set method on the parameter instance.

set_to(value: Any, allow_changes: bool = False) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to temporarily set a parameter to a value. By default, the parameter value cannot be changed inside the context. This may be overridden with allow_changes=True.

Examples

>>> from qcodes import Parameter
>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.set_to(3):
...     print(f"p value in with block {p.get()}")  # prints 3
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
>>> print(f"p value outside with block {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.set_to(3, allow_changes=True):
...     p.set(5)  # now this works
>>> print(f"value after second block: {p.get()}")  # still prints 2
property setpoint_full_names: Optional[Sequence[str]]

Full names of setpoints including instrument names if available

property settable: bool

Is it allowed to call set on this parameter?

property short_name: str

Short name of the parameter. This is without the name of the instrument or submodule that the parameter may be bound to. For full name refer to full_name().

snapshot(update: Optional[bool] = False) Dict[Any, Any]

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata. DO NOT override this method if you want metadata in the snapshot instead, override snapshot_base().

Parameters

update – Passed to snapshot_base.

Returns

Base snapshot.

snapshot_base(update: Optional[bool] = True, params_to_skip_update: Optional[Sequence[str]] = None) Dict[Any, Any]

State of the parameter as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class qcodes.utils.helpers.NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

If the parameter has been initiated with snapshot_value=False, the snapshot will NOT include the value and raw_value of the parameter.

Parameters
  • update – If True, update the state by calling parameter.get() unless snapshot_get of the parameter is False. If update is None, use the current value from the cache unless the cache is invalid. If False, never call parameter.get().

  • params_to_skip_update – No effect but may be passed from superclass

Returns

base snapshot

property snapshot_value: bool

If True the value of the parameter will be included in the snapshot.

property step: Optional[float]

Stepsize that this Parameter uses during set operation. Stepsize must be a positive number or None. If step is a positive number, this is the maximum value change allowed in one hardware call, so a single set can result in many calls to the hardware if the starting value is far from the target. All but the final change will attempt to change by +/- step exactly. If step is None stepping will not be used.

Getter

Returns the current stepsize.

Setter

Sets the value of the step.

Raises
  • TypeError – if step is set to not numeric or None

  • ValueError – if step is set to negative

  • TypeError – if step is set to not integer or None for an integer parameter

  • TypeError – if step is set to not a number on None

property underlying_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Returns an instance of the underlying hardware instrument that this parameter communicates with, per this parameter’s implementation.

This is useful in the case where a parameter does not belongs to an instrument instance that represents a real hardware instrument but actually uses a real hardware instrument in its implementation (e.g. via calls to one or more parameters of that real hardware instrument). This is also useful when a parameter does belong to an instrument instance but that instance does not represent the real hardware instrument that the parameter interacts with: hence root_instrument of the parameter cannot be the hardware_instrument, however underlying_instrument can be implemented to return the hardware_instrument.

By default it returns the root_instrument of the parameter.

validate(value: Any) None

Validate the value supplied.

Parameters

value – value to validate

Raises
  • TypeError – If the value is of the wrong type.

  • ValueError – If the value is outside the bounds specified by the validator.

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.ScaleParameter(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any)[source]

Bases: qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.TraceParameter

Parameter that handles changing the unit when the scale is changed.

set_raw(value: bool) None[source]

set_raw is called to perform the actual setting of a parameter on the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if set_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a set method on the parameter instance.

__getitem__(keys: Any) qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Slice a Parameter to get a SweepValues object to iterate over during a sweep

__str__() str

Include the instrument name with the Parameter name if possible.

property abstract: Optional[bool]
property full_name: str

Name of the parameter including the name of the instrument and submodule that the parameter may be bound to. The names are separated by underscores, like this: instrument_submodule_parameter.

get_ramp_values(value: Union[float, Sized], step: Optional[float] = None) Sequence[Union[float, Sized]]

Return values to sweep from current value to target value. This method can be overridden to have a custom sweep behaviour. It can even be overridden by a generator.

Parameters
  • value – target value

  • step – maximum step size

Returns

List of stepped values, including target value.

get_raw() Any

get_raw is called to perform the actual data acquisition from the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if get_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a get method on the parameter instance.

property gettable: bool

Is it allowed to call get on this parameter?

increment(value: Any) None

Increment the parameter with a value

Parameters

value – Value to be added to the parameter.

property instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the first instrument that this parameter is bound to. E.g if this is bound to a channel it will return the channel and not the instrument that the channel is bound too. Use root_instrument() to get the real instrument.

property inter_delay: float

Delay time between consecutive set operations. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay between sets.

Getter

Returns the current inter_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the inter_delay.

Raises
load_metadata(metadata: Dict[Any, Any]) None

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

Parameters

metadata – Metadata to load.

property name: str

Name of the parameter. This is identical to short_name().

property name_parts: List[str]

List of the parts that make up the full name of this parameter

property post_delay: float

Delay time after start of set operation, for each set. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay after every set. One might think of post_delay as how long a set operation is supposed to take. For example, there might be an instrument that needs extra time after setting a parameter although the command for setting the parameter returns quickly.

Getter

Returns the current post_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the post_delay.

Raises
property raw_value: Any

Note that this property will be deprecated soon. Use cache.raw_value instead.

Represents the cached raw value of the parameter.

Getter

Returns the cached raw value of the parameter.

restore_at_exit(allow_changes: bool = True) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to restore the value of a parameter after a with block.

By default, the parameter value may be changed inside the block, but this can be prevented with allow_changes=False. This can be useful, for example, for debugging a complex measurement that unintentionally modifies a parameter.

Example

>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.restore_at_exit():
...     p.set(3)
...     print(f"value inside with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 3
>>> print(f"value after with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.restore_at_exit(allow_changes=False):
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
property root_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the fundamental instrument that this parameter belongs too. E.g if the parameter is bound to a channel this will return the fundamental instrument that that channel belongs to. Use instrument() to get the channel.

set_to(value: Any, allow_changes: bool = False) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to temporarily set a parameter to a value. By default, the parameter value cannot be changed inside the context. This may be overridden with allow_changes=True.

Examples

>>> from qcodes import Parameter
>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.set_to(3):
...     print(f"p value in with block {p.get()}")  # prints 3
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
>>> print(f"p value outside with block {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.set_to(3, allow_changes=True):
...     p.set(5)  # now this works
>>> print(f"value after second block: {p.get()}")  # still prints 2
property settable: bool

Is it allowed to call set on this parameter?

property short_name: str

Short name of the parameter. This is without the name of the instrument or submodule that the parameter may be bound to. For full name refer to full_name().

snapshot(update: Optional[bool] = False) Dict[Any, Any]

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata. DO NOT override this method if you want metadata in the snapshot instead, override snapshot_base().

Parameters

update – Passed to snapshot_base.

Returns

Base snapshot.

snapshot_base(update: Optional[bool] = True, params_to_skip_update: Optional[Sequence[str]] = None) Dict[Any, Any]

State of the parameter as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class qcodes.utils.helpers.NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

If the parameter has been initiated with snapshot_value=False, the snapshot will NOT include the value and raw_value of the parameter.

Parameters
  • update – If True, update the state by calling parameter.get() unless snapshot_get of the parameter is False. If update is None, use the current value from the cache unless the cache is invalid. If False, never call parameter.get().

  • params_to_skip_update – No effect but may be passed from superclass

Returns

base snapshot

property snapshot_value: bool

If True the value of the parameter will be included in the snapshot.

property step: Optional[float]

Stepsize that this Parameter uses during set operation. Stepsize must be a positive number or None. If step is a positive number, this is the maximum value change allowed in one hardware call, so a single set can result in many calls to the hardware if the starting value is far from the target. All but the final change will attempt to change by +/- step exactly. If step is None stepping will not be used.

Getter

Returns the current stepsize.

Setter

Sets the value of the step.

Raises
  • TypeError – if step is set to not numeric or None

  • ValueError – if step is set to negative

  • TypeError – if step is set to not integer or None for an integer parameter

  • TypeError – if step is set to not a number on None

sweep(start: float, stop: float, step: Optional[float] = None, num: Optional[int] = None) qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Create a collection of parameter values to be iterated over. Requires start and stop and (step or num) The sign of step is not relevant.

Parameters
  • start – The starting value of the sequence.

  • stop – The end value of the sequence.

  • step – Spacing between values.

  • num – Number of values to generate.

Returns

Collection of parameter values to be iterated over.

Return type

SweepFixedValues

Examples

>>> sweep(0, 10, num=5)
 [0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0]
>>> sweep(5, 10, step=1)
[5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0]
>>> sweep(15, 10.5, step=1.5)
>[15.0, 13.5, 12.0, 10.5]
property underlying_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Returns an instance of the underlying hardware instrument that this parameter communicates with, per this parameter’s implementation.

This is useful in the case where a parameter does not belongs to an instrument instance that represents a real hardware instrument but actually uses a real hardware instrument in its implementation (e.g. via calls to one or more parameters of that real hardware instrument). This is also useful when a parameter does belong to an instrument instance but that instance does not represent the real hardware instrument that the parameter interacts with: hence root_instrument of the parameter cannot be the hardware_instrument, however underlying_instrument can be implemented to return the hardware_instrument.

By default it returns the root_instrument of the parameter.

validate(value: Any) None

Validate the value supplied.

Parameters

value – value to validate

Raises
  • TypeError – If the value is of the wrong type.

  • ValueError – If the value is outside the bounds specified by the validator.

label: str = ()

Label of the data used for plots etc.

unit = ()

The unit of measure. Use '' for unitless.

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.SignalHound_USB_SA124B(name: str, dll_path: Optional[str] = None, **kwargs: Any)[source]

Bases: qcodes.instrument.base.Instrument

QCoDeS driver for the SignalHound USB SA124B

The driver needs Signal Hounds software Spike installed to function. In addition you may need to install Microsoft Visual Studio C++ Redistributable for the driver to function within QCoDeS. At the time of writing the current version of Spike (3.2.3) uses Microsoft Visual Studio C++ Redistributable 2012

Parameters
  • name – Name of the instrument.

  • dll_path – Path to sa_api.dll Defaults to the default dll within Spike installation

  • **kwargs

dll_path = 'C:\\Program Files\\Signal Hound\\Spike\\sa_api.dll'
sync_parameters() None[source]

Sync parameters sets the configuration of the instrument using the parameters specified in the Qcodes instrument.

Sync parameters consists of five parts
  1. Center span configuration (freqs and span)

  2. Acquisition configuration

    lin-scale/log-scale avg/max power

  3. Configuring the external 10MHz reference

  4. Configuration of the mode that is being used

  5. Acquisition mode. At the moment only sweeping is implemented

This does not currently implement Configuration of the tracking generator used in VNA mode

configure() None[source]

Syncs parameters to the Instrument and updates the setpoint of the trace.

openDevice() None[source]

Opens connection to the instrument

close() None[source]

Close connection to the instrument.

abort() None[source]

Abort any running acquisition.

preset() None[source]

Like close but performs a hardware reset before closing the connection.

QuerySweep() Tuple[int, float, float][source]
Queries the sweep for information on the parameters that defines the

x axis of the sweep

Returns

number of points in sweep, start frequency and step size

static check_for_error(err: int, source: str, extrainfo: Optional[str] = None) None[source]
get_idn() Dict[str, Optional[str]][source]

Parse a standard VISA *IDN? response into an ID dict.

Even though this is the VISA standard, it applies to various other types as well, such as IPInstruments, so it is included here in the Instrument base class.

Override this if your instrument does not support *IDN? or returns a nonstandard IDN string. This string is supposed to be a comma-separated list of vendor, model, serial, and firmware, but semicolon and colon are also common separators so we accept them here as well.

Returns

A dict containing vendor, model, serial, and firmware.

__del__() None

Close the instrument and remove its instance record.

__getitem__(key: str) Union[Callable[[...], Any], qcodes.instrument.parameter.Parameter]

Delegate instrument[‘name’] to parameter or function ‘name’.

__getstate__() None

Prevent pickling instruments, and give a nice error message.

__repr__() str

Simplified repr giving just the class and name.

add_function(name: str, **kwargs: Any) None

Bind one Function to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ for every real function of the instrument.

This functionality is meant for simple cases, principally things that map to simple commands like *RST (reset) or those with just a few arguments. It requires a fixed argument count, and positional args only. If your case is more complicated, you’re probably better off simply making a new method in your Instrument subclass definition.

Parameters
  • name – How the Function will be stored within instrument.Functions and also how you address it using the shortcut methods: instrument.call(func_name, *args) etc.

  • **kwargs – constructor kwargs for Function

Raises

KeyError – If this instrument already has a function with this name.

add_parameter(name: str, parameter_class: type = <class 'qcodes.instrument.parameter.Parameter'>, **kwargs: Any) None

Bind one Parameter to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ for every real parameter of the instrument.

In this sense, parameters are the state variables of the instrument, anything the user can set and/or get.

Parameters
  • name – How the parameter will be stored within instrument.parameters and also how you address it using the shortcut methods: instrument.set(param_name, value) etc.

  • parameter_class – You can construct the parameter out of any class. Default parameter.Parameter.

  • **kwargs – Constructor arguments for parameter_class.

Raises
  • KeyError – If this instrument already has a parameter with this name and the parameter being replaced is not an abstract parameter.

  • ValueError – If there is an existing abstract parameter and the unit of the new parameter is inconsistent with the existing one.

add_submodule(name: str, submodule: Union[InstrumentBase, ChannelList]) None

Bind one submodule to this instrument.

Instrument subclasses can call this repeatedly in their __init__ method for every submodule of the instrument.

Submodules can effectively be considered as instruments within the main instrument, and should at minimum be snapshottable. For example, they can be used to either store logical groupings of parameters, which may or may not be repeated, or channel lists.

Parameters
  • name – How the submodule will be stored within instrument.submodules and also how it can be addressed.

  • submodule – The submodule to be stored.

Raises
  • KeyError – If this instrument already contains a submodule with this name.

  • TypeError – If the submodule that we are trying to add is not an instance of an Metadatable object.

property ancestors: List[qcodes.instrument.base.InstrumentBase]

Returns a list of instruments, starting from the current instrument and following to the parent instrument and the parents parent instrument until the root instrument is reached.

ask(cmd: str) str

Write a command string to the hardware and return a response.

Subclasses that transform cmd should override this method, and in it call super().ask(new_cmd). Subclasses that define a new hardware communication should instead override ask_raw.

Parameters

cmd – The string to send to the instrument.

Returns

response

Raises

Exception – Wraps any underlying exception with extra context, including the command and the instrument.

ask_raw(cmd: str) str

Low level method to write to the hardware and return a response.

Subclasses that define a new hardware communication should override this method. Subclasses that transform cmd should instead override ask.

Parameters

cmd – The string to send to the instrument.

call(func_name: str, *args: Any) Any

Shortcut for calling a function from its name.

Parameters
  • func_name – The name of a function of this instrument.

  • *args – any arguments to the function.

Returns

The return value of the function.

classmethod close_all() None

Try to close all instruments registered in _all_instruments This is handy for use with atexit to ensure that all instruments are closed when a python session is closed.

Examples

>>> atexit.register(qc.Instrument.close_all())
connect_message(idn_param: str = 'IDN', begin_time: Optional[float] = None) None

Print a standard message on initial connection to an instrument.

Parameters
  • idn_param – Name of parameter that returns ID dict. Default IDN.

  • begin_timetime.time() when init started. Default is self._t0, set at start of Instrument.__init__.

delegate_attr_dicts: List[str] = ['parameters', 'functions', 'submodules']

A list of names (strings) of dictionaries which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose keys should be treated as attributes of self.

delegate_attr_objects: List[str] = []

A list of names (strings) of objects which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose attributes should be passed through to self.

static exist(name: str, instrument_class: Optional[type] = None) bool

Check if an instrument with a given names exists (i.e. is already instantiated).

Parameters
  • name – Name of the instrument.

  • instrument_class – The type of instrument you are looking for.

classmethod find_instrument(name: str, instrument_class: Optional[type] = None) qcodes.instrument.base.Instrument

Find an existing instrument by name.

Parameters
  • name – Name of the instrument.

  • instrument_class – The type of instrument you are looking for.

Returns

The instrument found.

Raises
  • KeyError – If no instrument of that name was found, or if its reference is invalid (dead).

  • TypeError – If a specific class was requested but a different type was found.

property full_name: str
get(param_name: str) Any

Shortcut for getting a parameter from its name.

Parameters

param_name – The name of a parameter of this instrument.

Returns

The current value of the parameter.

classmethod instances() List[qcodes.instrument.base.Instrument]

Get all currently defined instances of this instrument class.

You can use this to get the objects back if you lose track of them, and it’s also used by the test system to find objects to test against.

Returns

A list of instances.

static is_valid(instr_instance: qcodes.instrument.base.Instrument) bool

Check if a given instance of an instrument is valid: if an instrument has been closed, its instance is not longer a “valid” instrument.

Parameters

instr_instance – Instance of an Instrument class or its subclass.

load_metadata(metadata: Dict[Any, Any]) None

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

Parameters

metadata – Metadata to load.

property name: str

Name of the instrument

property name_parts: List[str]
omit_delegate_attrs: List[str] = []

A list of attribute names (strings) to not delegate to any other dictionary or object.

property parent: Optional[qcodes.instrument.base.InstrumentBase]

Returns the parent instrument. By default this is None. Any SubInstrument should subclass this to return the parent instrument.

print_readable_snapshot(update: bool = False, max_chars: int = 80) None

Prints a readable version of the snapshot. The readable snapshot includes the name, value and unit of each parameter. A convenience function to quickly get an overview of the status of an instrument.

Parameters
  • update – If True, update the state by querying the instrument. If False, just use the latest values in memory. This argument gets passed to the snapshot function.

  • max_chars – the maximum number of characters per line. The readable snapshot will be cropped if this value is exceeded. Defaults to 80 to be consistent with default terminal width.

classmethod record_instance(instance: qcodes.instrument.base.Instrument) None

Record (a weak ref to) an instance in a class’s instance list.

Also records the instance in list of all instruments, and verifies that there are no other instruments with the same name.

Parameters

instance – Instance to record.

Raises

KeyError – If another instance with the same name is already present.

classmethod remove_instance(instance: qcodes.instrument.base.Instrument) None

Remove a particular instance from the record.

Parameters

instance – The instance to remove

property root_instrument: qcodes.instrument.base.InstrumentBase
set(param_name: str, value: Any) None

Shortcut for setting a parameter from its name and new value.

Parameters
  • param_name – The name of a parameter of this instrument.

  • value – The new value to set.

shared_kwargs = ()
property short_name: str

Short name of the instrument

snapshot(update: Optional[bool] = False) Dict[Any, Any]

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata. DO NOT override this method if you want metadata in the snapshot instead, override snapshot_base().

Parameters

update – Passed to snapshot_base.

Returns

Base snapshot.

snapshot_base(update: Optional[bool] = False, params_to_skip_update: Optional[Sequence[str]] = None) Dict[Any, Any]

State of the instrument as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class qcodes.utils.helpers.NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

Parameters
  • update – If True, update the state by querying the instrument. If None update the state if known to be invalid. If False, just use the latest values in memory and never update state.

  • params_to_skip_update – List of parameter names that will be skipped in update even if update is True. This is useful if you have parameters that are slow to update but can be updated in a different way (as in the qdac). If you want to skip the update of certain parameters in all snapshots, use the snapshot_get attribute of those parameters instead.

Returns

base snapshot

Return type

dict

validate_status(verbose: bool = False) None

Validate the values of all gettable parameters

The validation is done for all parameters that have both a get and set method.

Parameters

verbose – If True, then information about the parameters that are being check is printed.

write(cmd: str) None

Write a command string with NO response to the hardware.

Subclasses that transform cmd should override this method, and in it call super().write(new_cmd). Subclasses that define a new hardware communication should instead override write_raw.

Parameters

cmd – The string to send to the instrument.

Raises

Exception – Wraps any underlying exception with extra context, including the command and the instrument.

write_raw(cmd: str) None

Low level method to write a command string to the hardware.

Subclasses that define a new hardware communication should override this method. Subclasses that transform cmd should instead override write.

Parameters

cmd – The string to send to the instrument.

parameters: Dict[str, _BaseParameter] = {}

All the parameters supported by this instrument. Usually populated via add_parameter().

functions: Dict[str, Function] = {}

All the functions supported by this instrument. Usually populated via add_function().

submodules: Dict[str, Union['InstrumentBase', 'ChannelList']] = {}

All the submodules of this instrument such as channel lists or logical groupings of parameters. Usually populated via add_submodule().

log: InstrumentLoggerAdapter = get_instrument_logger(self, __name__)
class qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.SweepTraceParameter(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any)[source]

Bases: qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.TraceParameter

An extension to TraceParameter that keeps track of the trace setpoints in addition to the functionality of TraceParameter

set_raw(value: Any) None[source]

set_raw is called to perform the actual setting of a parameter on the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if set_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a set method on the parameter instance.

__getitem__(keys: Any) qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Slice a Parameter to get a SweepValues object to iterate over during a sweep

__str__() str

Include the instrument name with the Parameter name if possible.

property abstract: Optional[bool]
property full_name: str

Name of the parameter including the name of the instrument and submodule that the parameter may be bound to. The names are separated by underscores, like this: instrument_submodule_parameter.

get_ramp_values(value: Union[float, Sized], step: Optional[float] = None) Sequence[Union[float, Sized]]

Return values to sweep from current value to target value. This method can be overridden to have a custom sweep behaviour. It can even be overridden by a generator.

Parameters
  • value – target value

  • step – maximum step size

Returns

List of stepped values, including target value.

get_raw() Any

get_raw is called to perform the actual data acquisition from the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if get_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a get method on the parameter instance.

property gettable: bool

Is it allowed to call get on this parameter?

increment(value: Any) None

Increment the parameter with a value

Parameters

value – Value to be added to the parameter.

property instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the first instrument that this parameter is bound to. E.g if this is bound to a channel it will return the channel and not the instrument that the channel is bound too. Use root_instrument() to get the real instrument.

property inter_delay: float

Delay time between consecutive set operations. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay between sets.

Getter

Returns the current inter_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the inter_delay.

Raises
load_metadata(metadata: Dict[Any, Any]) None

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

Parameters

metadata – Metadata to load.

property name: str

Name of the parameter. This is identical to short_name().

property name_parts: List[str]

List of the parts that make up the full name of this parameter

property post_delay: float

Delay time after start of set operation, for each set. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay after every set. One might think of post_delay as how long a set operation is supposed to take. For example, there might be an instrument that needs extra time after setting a parameter although the command for setting the parameter returns quickly.

Getter

Returns the current post_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the post_delay.

Raises
property raw_value: Any

Note that this property will be deprecated soon. Use cache.raw_value instead.

Represents the cached raw value of the parameter.

Getter

Returns the cached raw value of the parameter.

restore_at_exit(allow_changes: bool = True) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to restore the value of a parameter after a with block.

By default, the parameter value may be changed inside the block, but this can be prevented with allow_changes=False. This can be useful, for example, for debugging a complex measurement that unintentionally modifies a parameter.

Example

>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.restore_at_exit():
...     p.set(3)
...     print(f"value inside with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 3
>>> print(f"value after with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.restore_at_exit(allow_changes=False):
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
property root_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the fundamental instrument that this parameter belongs too. E.g if the parameter is bound to a channel this will return the fundamental instrument that that channel belongs to. Use instrument() to get the channel.

set_to(value: Any, allow_changes: bool = False) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to temporarily set a parameter to a value. By default, the parameter value cannot be changed inside the context. This may be overridden with allow_changes=True.

Examples

>>> from qcodes import Parameter
>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.set_to(3):
...     print(f"p value in with block {p.get()}")  # prints 3
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
>>> print(f"p value outside with block {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.set_to(3, allow_changes=True):
...     p.set(5)  # now this works
>>> print(f"value after second block: {p.get()}")  # still prints 2
property settable: bool

Is it allowed to call set on this parameter?

property short_name: str

Short name of the parameter. This is without the name of the instrument or submodule that the parameter may be bound to. For full name refer to full_name().

snapshot(update: Optional[bool] = False) Dict[Any, Any]

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata. DO NOT override this method if you want metadata in the snapshot instead, override snapshot_base().

Parameters

update – Passed to snapshot_base.

Returns

Base snapshot.

snapshot_base(update: Optional[bool] = True, params_to_skip_update: Optional[Sequence[str]] = None) Dict[Any, Any]

State of the parameter as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class qcodes.utils.helpers.NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

If the parameter has been initiated with snapshot_value=False, the snapshot will NOT include the value and raw_value of the parameter.

Parameters
  • update – If True, update the state by calling parameter.get() unless snapshot_get of the parameter is False. If update is None, use the current value from the cache unless the cache is invalid. If False, never call parameter.get().

  • params_to_skip_update – No effect but may be passed from superclass

Returns

base snapshot

property snapshot_value: bool

If True the value of the parameter will be included in the snapshot.

property step: Optional[float]

Stepsize that this Parameter uses during set operation. Stepsize must be a positive number or None. If step is a positive number, this is the maximum value change allowed in one hardware call, so a single set can result in many calls to the hardware if the starting value is far from the target. All but the final change will attempt to change by +/- step exactly. If step is None stepping will not be used.

Getter

Returns the current stepsize.

Setter

Sets the value of the step.

Raises
  • TypeError – if step is set to not numeric or None

  • ValueError – if step is set to negative

  • TypeError – if step is set to not integer or None for an integer parameter

  • TypeError – if step is set to not a number on None

sweep(start: float, stop: float, step: Optional[float] = None, num: Optional[int] = None) qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Create a collection of parameter values to be iterated over. Requires start and stop and (step or num) The sign of step is not relevant.

Parameters
  • start – The starting value of the sequence.

  • stop – The end value of the sequence.

  • step – Spacing between values.

  • num – Number of values to generate.

Returns

Collection of parameter values to be iterated over.

Return type

SweepFixedValues

Examples

>>> sweep(0, 10, num=5)
 [0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0]
>>> sweep(5, 10, step=1)
[5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0]
>>> sweep(15, 10.5, step=1.5)
>[15.0, 13.5, 12.0, 10.5]
property underlying_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Returns an instance of the underlying hardware instrument that this parameter communicates with, per this parameter’s implementation.

This is useful in the case where a parameter does not belongs to an instrument instance that represents a real hardware instrument but actually uses a real hardware instrument in its implementation (e.g. via calls to one or more parameters of that real hardware instrument). This is also useful when a parameter does belong to an instrument instance but that instance does not represent the real hardware instrument that the parameter interacts with: hence root_instrument of the parameter cannot be the hardware_instrument, however underlying_instrument can be implemented to return the hardware_instrument.

By default it returns the root_instrument of the parameter.

validate(value: Any) None

Validate the value supplied.

Parameters

value – value to validate

Raises
  • TypeError – If the value is of the wrong type.

  • ValueError – If the value is outside the bounds specified by the validator.

label: str = ()

Label of the data used for plots etc.

unit = ()

The unit of measure. Use '' for unitless.

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.TraceParameter(*args: Any, **kwargs: Any)[source]

Bases: qcodes.instrument.parameter.Parameter

A parameter that used a flag on the instrument to keeps track of if it’s value has been synced to the instrument. It is intended that this type of parameter is synced using an external method which resets the flag.

This is most likely used similar to a ManualParameter I.e. calling set/get will not communicate with the instrument.

set_raw(value: Any) None[source]

set_raw is called to perform the actual setting of a parameter on the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if set_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a set method on the parameter instance.

__getitem__(keys: Any) qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Slice a Parameter to get a SweepValues object to iterate over during a sweep

__str__() str

Include the instrument name with the Parameter name if possible.

property abstract: Optional[bool]
property full_name: str

Name of the parameter including the name of the instrument and submodule that the parameter may be bound to. The names are separated by underscores, like this: instrument_submodule_parameter.

get_ramp_values(value: Union[float, Sized], step: Optional[float] = None) Sequence[Union[float, Sized]]

Return values to sweep from current value to target value. This method can be overridden to have a custom sweep behaviour. It can even be overridden by a generator.

Parameters
  • value – target value

  • step – maximum step size

Returns

List of stepped values, including target value.

get_raw() Any

get_raw is called to perform the actual data acquisition from the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if get_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a get method on the parameter instance.

property gettable: bool

Is it allowed to call get on this parameter?

increment(value: Any) None

Increment the parameter with a value

Parameters

value – Value to be added to the parameter.

property instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the first instrument that this parameter is bound to. E.g if this is bound to a channel it will return the channel and not the instrument that the channel is bound too. Use root_instrument() to get the real instrument.

property inter_delay: float

Delay time between consecutive set operations. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay between sets.

Getter

Returns the current inter_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the inter_delay.

Raises
load_metadata(metadata: Dict[Any, Any]) None

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

Parameters

metadata – Metadata to load.

property name: str

Name of the parameter. This is identical to short_name().

property name_parts: List[str]

List of the parts that make up the full name of this parameter

property post_delay: float

Delay time after start of set operation, for each set. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay after every set. One might think of post_delay as how long a set operation is supposed to take. For example, there might be an instrument that needs extra time after setting a parameter although the command for setting the parameter returns quickly.

Getter

Returns the current post_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the post_delay.

Raises
property raw_value: Any

Note that this property will be deprecated soon. Use cache.raw_value instead.

Represents the cached raw value of the parameter.

Getter

Returns the cached raw value of the parameter.

restore_at_exit(allow_changes: bool = True) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to restore the value of a parameter after a with block.

By default, the parameter value may be changed inside the block, but this can be prevented with allow_changes=False. This can be useful, for example, for debugging a complex measurement that unintentionally modifies a parameter.

Example

>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.restore_at_exit():
...     p.set(3)
...     print(f"value inside with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 3
>>> print(f"value after with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.restore_at_exit(allow_changes=False):
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
property root_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Return the fundamental instrument that this parameter belongs too. E.g if the parameter is bound to a channel this will return the fundamental instrument that that channel belongs to. Use instrument() to get the channel.

set_to(value: Any, allow_changes: bool = False) qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to temporarily set a parameter to a value. By default, the parameter value cannot be changed inside the context. This may be overridden with allow_changes=True.

Examples

>>> from qcodes import Parameter
>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.set_to(3):
...     print(f"p value in with block {p.get()}")  # prints 3
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
>>> print(f"p value outside with block {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.set_to(3, allow_changes=True):
...     p.set(5)  # now this works
>>> print(f"value after second block: {p.get()}")  # still prints 2
property settable: bool

Is it allowed to call set on this parameter?

property short_name: str

Short name of the parameter. This is without the name of the instrument or submodule that the parameter may be bound to. For full name refer to full_name().

snapshot(update: Optional[bool] = False) Dict[Any, Any]

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata. DO NOT override this method if you want metadata in the snapshot instead, override snapshot_base().

Parameters

update – Passed to snapshot_base.

Returns

Base snapshot.

snapshot_base(update: Optional[bool] = True, params_to_skip_update: Optional[Sequence[str]] = None) Dict[Any, Any]

State of the parameter as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class qcodes.utils.helpers.NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

If the parameter has been initiated with snapshot_value=False, the snapshot will NOT include the value and raw_value of the parameter.

Parameters
  • update – If True, update the state by calling parameter.get() unless snapshot_get of the parameter is False. If update is None, use the current value from the cache unless the cache is invalid. If False, never call parameter.get().

  • params_to_skip_update – No effect but may be passed from superclass

Returns

base snapshot

property snapshot_value: bool

If True the value of the parameter will be included in the snapshot.

property step: Optional[float]

Stepsize that this Parameter uses during set operation. Stepsize must be a positive number or None. If step is a positive number, this is the maximum value change allowed in one hardware call, so a single set can result in many calls to the hardware if the starting value is far from the target. All but the final change will attempt to change by +/- step exactly. If step is None stepping will not be used.

Getter

Returns the current stepsize.

Setter

Sets the value of the step.

Raises
  • TypeError – if step is set to not numeric or None

  • ValueError – if step is set to negative

  • TypeError – if step is set to not integer or None for an integer parameter

  • TypeError – if step is set to not a number on None

sweep(start: float, stop: float, step: Optional[float] = None, num: Optional[int] = None) qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Create a collection of parameter values to be iterated over. Requires start and stop and (step or num) The sign of step is not relevant.

Parameters
  • start – The starting value of the sequence.

  • stop – The end value of the sequence.

  • step – Spacing between values.

  • num – Number of values to generate.

Returns

Collection of parameter values to be iterated over.

Return type

SweepFixedValues

Examples

>>> sweep(0, 10, num=5)
 [0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0]
>>> sweep(5, 10, step=1)
[5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0]
>>> sweep(15, 10.5, step=1.5)
>[15.0, 13.5, 12.0, 10.5]
property underlying_instrument: Optional[InstrumentBase]

Returns an instance of the underlying hardware instrument that this parameter communicates with, per this parameter’s implementation.

This is useful in the case where a parameter does not belongs to an instrument instance that represents a real hardware instrument but actually uses a real hardware instrument in its implementation (e.g. via calls to one or more parameters of that real hardware instrument). This is also useful when a parameter does belong to an instrument instance but that instance does not represent the real hardware instrument that the parameter interacts with: hence root_instrument of the parameter cannot be the hardware_instrument, however underlying_instrument can be implemented to return the hardware_instrument.

By default it returns the root_instrument of the parameter.

validate(value: Any) None

Validate the value supplied.

Parameters

value – value to validate

Raises
  • TypeError – If the value is of the wrong type.

  • ValueError – If the value is outside the bounds specified by the validator.

label: str = ()

Label of the data used for plots etc.

unit = ()

The unit of measure. Use '' for unitless.

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.signal_hound.USB_SA124B.saStatus(value)[source]

Bases: enum.IntEnum

An enumeration.

saUnknownErr = -666
saFrequencyRangeErr = 99
saInvalidDetectorErr = -95
saInvalidScaleErr = -94
saBandwidthErr = -91
saExternalReferenceNotFound = -89
saOvenColdErr = -20
saInternetErr = -12
saUSBCommErr = -11
saTrackingGeneratorNotFound = -10
saDeviceNotIdleErr = -9
saDeviceNotFoundErr = -8
saInvalidModeErr = -7
saNotConfiguredErr = -6
saDeviceNotConfiguredErr = -6
saTooManyDevicesErr = -5
saInvalidParameterErr = -4
saDeviceNotOpenErr = -3
saInvalidDeviceErr = -2
saNullPtrErr = -1
saNoError = 0
saNoCorrections = 1
saCompressionWarning = 2
saParameterClamped = 3
saBandwidthClamped = 4

Module contents