qcodes.instrument_drivers package

Subpackages

Submodules

qcodes.instrument_drivers.devices module

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.devices.VoltageDivider(v1: qcodes.instrument.parameter.Parameter, division_value: Union[int, float], name: Optional[str] = None, label: Optional[str] = None, instrument: Union[None, qcodes.instrument.base.Instrument] = None)[source]

Bases: qcodes.instrument.parameter.Parameter

Resitive voltage divider

To be used when you use a physical voltage divider to set or get a voltage.

Initialize the voltage diveder by passing the parameter to be measured and the value of the division (which should be calibrated beforehand)

>>> vd = VoltageDivider(dac.chan0, 10)

The voltage divider acts a your original parameter, but will set the right value, and store the division_value in the metadata.

Set the value you want to set your device at 10 V

>>> vd(10)

This will set the dac.cha0 at 10*10, but upon measuring the divider the value returned is the voltage at the sample.

>>> vd()
10

To get the voltage that was actually set on the instrument:

>>> vd.get_instrument_value()
100
Parameters
  • v1 – Parameter physically attached to the divider as input

  • division_value – the divsion value of the divider

  • label – label of this parameter, by default uses v1 label but attaches _attenuated

  • name – name of this parameter, by default uses v1 name but attaches _attenuated

set_raw(value: Union[int, float])None[source]

set_raw is called to perform the actual setting of a parameter on the instrument. This method should either be overwritten to perform the desired operation or alternatively for Parameter a suitable method is automatically generated if set_cmd is supplied to the parameter constructor. The method is automatically wrapped to provide a set method on the parameter instance.

get_raw() → Union[int, float][source]
Returns

value at which was set at the sample

__getitem__(keys: Any) → qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Slice a Parameter to get a SweepValues object to iterate over during a sweep

__str__()str

Include the instrument name with the Parameter name if possible.

property full_name

Name of the parameter including the name of the instrument and submodule that the parameter may be bound to. The names are separated by underscores, like this: instrument_submodule_parameter.

get_instrument_value() → Union[int, float][source]
Returns

value at which the attached parameter is (i.e. does not account for the scaling)

get_ramp_values(value: Union[float, Sized], step: Optional[float] = None) → Sequence[Union[float, Sized]]

Return values to sweep from current value to target value. This method can be overridden to have a custom sweep behaviour. It can even be overridden by a generator.

Parameters
  • value – target value

  • step – maximum step size

Returns

List of stepped values, including target value.

property gettable

Is it allowed to call get on this parameter?

increment(value: Any)None

Increment the parameter with a value

Parameters

value – Value to be added to the parameter.

property instrument

Return the first instrument that this parameter is bound to. E.g if this is bound to a channel it will return the channel and not the instrument that the channel is bound too. Use root_instrument() to get the real instrument.

property inter_delay

Delay time between consecutive set operations. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay between sets.

Getter

Returns the current inter_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the inter_delay.

Raises
load_metadata(metadata: Dict[Any, Any])None

Load metadata into this classes metadata dictionary.

Parameters

metadata – Metadata to load.

property name

Name of the parameter. This is identical to short_name().

property name_parts

List of the parts that make up the full name of this parameter

property post_delay

Delay time after start of set operation, for each set. The actual time will not be shorter than this, but may be longer if the underlying set call takes longer.

Typically used in conjunction with step to create an effective ramp rate, but can also be used without a step to enforce a delay after every set. One might think of post_delay as how long a set operation is supposed to take. For example, there might be an instrument that needs extra time after setting a parameter although the command for setting the parameter returns quickly.

Getter

Returns the current post_delay.

Setter

Sets the value of the post_delay.

Raises
property raw_value

Note that this property will be deprecated soon. Use cache.raw_value instead.

Represents the cached raw value of the parameter.

Getter

Returns the cached raw value of the parameter.

restore_at_exit(allow_changes: bool = True) → qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to restore the value of a parameter after a with block.

By default, the parameter value may be changed inside the block, but this can be prevented with allow_changes=False. This can be useful, for example, for debugging a complex measurement that unintentionally modifies a parameter.

Example

>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.restore_at_exit():
...     p.set(3)
...     print(f"value inside with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 3
>>> print(f"value after with block: {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.restore_at_exit(allow_changes=False):
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
property root_instrument

Return the fundamental instrument that this parameter belongs too. E.g if the parameter is bound to a channel this will return the fundamental instrument that that channel belongs to. Use instrument() to get the channel.

set_to(value: Any, allow_changes: bool = False) → qcodes.instrument.parameter._SetParamContext

Use a context manager to temporarily set a parameter to a value. By default, the parameter value cannot be changed inside the context. This may be overridden with allow_changes=True.

Examples

>>> from qcodes import Parameter
>>> p = Parameter("p", set_cmd=None, get_cmd=None)
>>> p.set(2)
>>> with p.set_to(3):
...     print(f"p value in with block {p.get()}")  # prints 3
...     p.set(5)  # raises an exception
>>> print(f"p value outside with block {p.get()}")  # prints 2
>>> with p.set_to(3, allow_changes=True):
...     p.set(5)  # now this works
>>> print(f"value after second block: {p.get()}")  # still prints 2
property settable

Is it allowed to call set on this parameter?

property short_name

Short name of the parameter. This is without the name of the instrument or submodule that the parameter may be bound to. For full name refer to full_name().

snapshot(update: Optional[bool] = False) → Dict[Any, Any]

Decorate a snapshot dictionary with metadata. DO NOT override this method if you want metadata in the snapshot instead, override snapshot_base().

Parameters

update – Passed to snapshot_base.

Returns

Base snapshot.

snapshot_base(update: Optional[bool] = True, params_to_skip_update: Optional[Sequence[str]] = None) → Dict[Any, Any]

State of the parameter as a JSON-compatible dict (everything that the custom JSON encoder class qcodes.utils.helpers.NumpyJSONEncoder supports).

If the parameter has been initiated with snapshot_value=False, the snapshot will NOT include the value and raw_value of the parameter.

Parameters
  • update – If True, update the state by calling parameter.get() unless snapshot_get of the parameter is False. If update is None, use the current value from the cache unless the cache is invalid. If False, never call parameter.get().

  • params_to_skip_update – No effect but may be passed from superclass

Returns

base snapshot

property snapshot_value

If True the value of the parameter will be included in the snapshot.

property step

Stepsize that this Parameter uses during set operation. Stepsize must be a positive number or None. If step is a positive number, this is the maximum value change allowed in one hardware call, so a single set can result in many calls to the hardware if the starting value is far from the target. All but the final change will attempt to change by +/- step exactly. If step is None stepping will not be used.

Getter

Returns the current stepsize.

Setter

Sets the value of the step.

Raises
  • TypeError – if step is set to not numeric or None

  • ValueError – if step is set to negative

  • TypeError – if step is set to not integer or None for an integer parameter

  • TypeError – if step is set to not a number on None

sweep(start: float, stop: float, step: Optional[float] = None, num: Optional[int] = None) → qcodes.instrument.sweep_values.SweepFixedValues

Create a collection of parameter values to be iterated over. Requires start and stop and (step or num) The sign of step is not relevant.

Parameters
  • start – The starting value of the sequence.

  • stop – The end value of the sequence.

  • step – Spacing between values.

  • num – Number of values to generate.

Returns

Collection of parameter values to be iterated over.

Return type

SweepFixedValues

Examples

>>> sweep(0, 10, num=5)
 [0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0]
>>> sweep(5, 10, step=1)
[5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10.0]
>>> sweep(15, 10.5, step=1.5)
>[15.0, 13.5, 12.0, 10.5]
validate(value: Any)None

Validate the value supplied.

Parameters

value – value to validate

Raises
  • TypeError – If the value is of the wrong type.

  • ValueError – If the value is outside the bounds specified by the validator.

qcodes.instrument_drivers.test module

class qcodes.instrument_drivers.test.DriverTestCase(methodName='runTest')[source]

Bases: unittest.case.TestCase

Create an instance of the class that will use the named test method when executed. Raises a ValueError if the instance does not have a method with the specified name.

driver: Optional[type] = None
classmethod setUpClass()[source]

Hook method for setting up class fixture before running tests in the class.

addCleanup(**kwargs)

Add a function, with arguments, to be called when the test is completed. Functions added are called on a LIFO basis and are called after tearDown on test failure or success.

Cleanup items are called even if setUp fails (unlike tearDown).

addTypeEqualityFunc(typeobj, function)

Add a type specific assertEqual style function to compare a type.

This method is for use by TestCase subclasses that need to register their own type equality functions to provide nicer error messages.

Parameters
  • typeobj – The data type to call this function on when both values are of the same type in assertEqual().

  • function – The callable taking two arguments and an optional msg= argument that raises self.failureException with a useful error message when the two arguments are not equal.

assertAlmostEqual(first, second, places=None, msg=None, delta=None)

Fail if the two objects are unequal as determined by their difference rounded to the given number of decimal places (default 7) and comparing to zero, or by comparing that the difference between the two objects is more than the given delta.

Note that decimal places (from zero) are usually not the same as significant digits (measured from the most significant digit).

If the two objects compare equal then they will automatically compare almost equal.

assertAlmostEquals(**kwargs)
assertCountEqual(first, second, msg=None)

An unordered sequence comparison asserting that the same elements, regardless of order. If the same element occurs more than once, it verifies that the elements occur the same number of times.

self.assertEqual(Counter(list(first)),

Counter(list(second)))

Example:
  • [0, 1, 1] and [1, 0, 1] compare equal.

  • [0, 0, 1] and [0, 1] compare unequal.

assertDictContainsSubset(subset, dictionary, msg=None)

Checks whether dictionary is a superset of subset.

assertDictEqual(d1, d2, msg=None)
assertEqual(first, second, msg=None)

Fail if the two objects are unequal as determined by the ‘==’ operator.

assertEquals(**kwargs)
assertFalse(expr, msg=None)

Check that the expression is false.

assertGreater(a, b, msg=None)

Just like self.assertTrue(a > b), but with a nicer default message.

assertGreaterEqual(a, b, msg=None)

Just like self.assertTrue(a >= b), but with a nicer default message.

assertIn(member, container, msg=None)

Just like self.assertTrue(a in b), but with a nicer default message.

assertIs(expr1, expr2, msg=None)

Just like self.assertTrue(a is b), but with a nicer default message.

assertIsInstance(obj, cls, msg=None)

Same as self.assertTrue(isinstance(obj, cls)), with a nicer default message.

assertIsNone(obj, msg=None)

Same as self.assertTrue(obj is None), with a nicer default message.

assertIsNot(expr1, expr2, msg=None)

Just like self.assertTrue(a is not b), but with a nicer default message.

assertIsNotNone(obj, msg=None)

Included for symmetry with assertIsNone.

assertLess(a, b, msg=None)

Just like self.assertTrue(a < b), but with a nicer default message.

assertLessEqual(a, b, msg=None)

Just like self.assertTrue(a <= b), but with a nicer default message.

assertListEqual(list1, list2, msg=None)

A list-specific equality assertion.

Parameters
  • list1 – The first list to compare.

  • list2 – The second list to compare.

  • msg – Optional message to use on failure instead of a list of differences.

assertLogs(logger=None, level=None)

Fail unless a log message of level level or higher is emitted on logger_name or its children. If omitted, level defaults to INFO and logger defaults to the root logger.

This method must be used as a context manager, and will yield a recording object with two attributes: output and records. At the end of the context manager, the output attribute will be a list of the matching formatted log messages and the records attribute will be a list of the corresponding LogRecord objects.

Example:

with self.assertLogs('foo', level='INFO') as cm:
    logging.getLogger('foo').info('first message')
    logging.getLogger('foo.bar').error('second message')
self.assertEqual(cm.output, ['INFO:foo:first message',
                             'ERROR:foo.bar:second message'])
assertMultiLineEqual(first, second, msg=None)

Assert that two multi-line strings are equal.

assertNotAlmostEqual(first, second, places=None, msg=None, delta=None)

Fail if the two objects are equal as determined by their difference rounded to the given number of decimal places (default 7) and comparing to zero, or by comparing that the difference between the two objects is less than the given delta.

Note that decimal places (from zero) are usually not the same as significant digits (measured from the most significant digit).

Objects that are equal automatically fail.

assertNotAlmostEquals(**kwargs)
assertNotEqual(first, second, msg=None)

Fail if the two objects are equal as determined by the ‘!=’ operator.

assertNotEquals(**kwargs)
assertNotIn(member, container, msg=None)

Just like self.assertTrue(a not in b), but with a nicer default message.

assertNotIsInstance(obj, cls, msg=None)

Included for symmetry with assertIsInstance.

assertNotRegex(text, unexpected_regex, msg=None)

Fail the test if the text matches the regular expression.

assertNotRegexpMatches(**kwargs)
assertRaises(expected_exception, *args, **kwargs)

Fail unless an exception of class expected_exception is raised by the callable when invoked with specified positional and keyword arguments. If a different type of exception is raised, it will not be caught, and the test case will be deemed to have suffered an error, exactly as for an unexpected exception.

If called with the callable and arguments omitted, will return a context object used like this:

with self.assertRaises(SomeException):
    do_something()

An optional keyword argument ‘msg’ can be provided when assertRaises is used as a context object.

The context manager keeps a reference to the exception as the ‘exception’ attribute. This allows you to inspect the exception after the assertion:

with self.assertRaises(SomeException) as cm:
    do_something()
the_exception = cm.exception
self.assertEqual(the_exception.error_code, 3)
assertRaisesRegex(expected_exception, expected_regex, *args, **kwargs)

Asserts that the message in a raised exception matches a regex.

Parameters
  • expected_exception – Exception class expected to be raised.

  • expected_regex – Regex (re.Pattern object or string) expected to be found in error message.

  • args – Function to be called and extra positional args.

  • kwargs – Extra kwargs.

  • msg – Optional message used in case of failure. Can only be used when assertRaisesRegex is used as a context manager.

assertRaisesRegexp(**kwargs)
assertRegex(text, expected_regex, msg=None)

Fail the test unless the text matches the regular expression.

assertRegexpMatches(**kwargs)
assertSequenceEqual(seq1, seq2, msg=None, seq_type=None)

An equality assertion for ordered sequences (like lists and tuples).

For the purposes of this function, a valid ordered sequence type is one which can be indexed, has a length, and has an equality operator.

Parameters
  • seq1 – The first sequence to compare.

  • seq2 – The second sequence to compare.

  • seq_type – The expected datatype of the sequences, or None if no datatype should be enforced.

  • msg – Optional message to use on failure instead of a list of differences.

assertSetEqual(set1, set2, msg=None)

A set-specific equality assertion.

Parameters
  • set1 – The first set to compare.

  • set2 – The second set to compare.

  • msg – Optional message to use on failure instead of a list of differences.

assertSetEqual uses ducktyping to support different types of sets, and is optimized for sets specifically (parameters must support a difference method).

assertTrue(expr, msg=None)

Check that the expression is true.

assertTupleEqual(tuple1, tuple2, msg=None)

A tuple-specific equality assertion.

Parameters
  • tuple1 – The first tuple to compare.

  • tuple2 – The second tuple to compare.

  • msg – Optional message to use on failure instead of a list of differences.

assertWarns(expected_warning, *args, **kwargs)

Fail unless a warning of class warnClass is triggered by the callable when invoked with specified positional and keyword arguments. If a different type of warning is triggered, it will not be handled: depending on the other warning filtering rules in effect, it might be silenced, printed out, or raised as an exception.

If called with the callable and arguments omitted, will return a context object used like this:

with self.assertWarns(SomeWarning):
    do_something()

An optional keyword argument ‘msg’ can be provided when assertWarns is used as a context object.

The context manager keeps a reference to the first matching warning as the ‘warning’ attribute; similarly, the ‘filename’ and ‘lineno’ attributes give you information about the line of Python code from which the warning was triggered. This allows you to inspect the warning after the assertion:

with self.assertWarns(SomeWarning) as cm:
    do_something()
the_warning = cm.warning
self.assertEqual(the_warning.some_attribute, 147)
assertWarnsRegex(expected_warning, expected_regex, *args, **kwargs)

Asserts that the message in a triggered warning matches a regexp. Basic functioning is similar to assertWarns() with the addition that only warnings whose messages also match the regular expression are considered successful matches.

Parameters
  • expected_warning – Warning class expected to be triggered.

  • expected_regex – Regex (re.Pattern object or string) expected to be found in error message.

  • args – Function to be called and extra positional args.

  • kwargs – Extra kwargs.

  • msg – Optional message used in case of failure. Can only be used when assertWarnsRegex is used as a context manager.

assert_(**kwargs)
countTestCases()
debug()

Run the test without collecting errors in a TestResult

defaultTestResult()
doCleanups()

Execute all cleanup functions. Normally called for you after tearDown.

fail(msg=None)

Fail immediately, with the given message.

failIf(**kwargs)
failIfAlmostEqual(**kwargs)
failIfEqual(**kwargs)
failUnless(**kwargs)
failUnlessAlmostEqual(**kwargs)
failUnlessEqual(**kwargs)
failUnlessRaises(**kwargs)
failureException

alias of builtins.AssertionError

id()
longMessage = True
maxDiff = 640
run(result=None)
setUp()

Hook method for setting up the test fixture before exercising it.

shortDescription()

Returns a one-line description of the test, or None if no description has been provided.

The default implementation of this method returns the first line of the specified test method’s docstring.

skipTest(reason)

Skip this test.

subTest(msg=<object object>, **params)

Return a context manager that will return the enclosed block of code in a subtest identified by the optional message and keyword parameters. A failure in the subtest marks the test case as failed but resumes execution at the end of the enclosed block, allowing further test code to be executed.

tearDown()

Hook method for deconstructing the test fixture after testing it.

classmethod tearDownClass()

Hook method for deconstructing the class fixture after running all tests in the class.

qcodes.instrument_drivers.test.test_instruments(verbosity=1)[source]

Discover available instruments and test them all Unlike test_instrument, this does NOT reload tests prior to running them

optional verbosity (default 1)

qcodes.instrument_drivers.test.test_instrument(instrument_testcase, verbosity=2)[source]

Runs one instrument testcase Reloads the test case before running it

optional verbosity (default 2)

Module contents