class qcodes.data.data_array.DataArray(parameter=None, name=None, full_name=None, label=None, snapshot=None, array_id=None, set_arrays=(), shape=None, action_indices=(), unit=None, units=None, is_setpoint=False, preset_data=None)[source]

Bases: qcodes.utils.helpers.DelegateAttributes

A container for one parameter in a measurement loop.

If this is a measured parameter, This object doesn’t contain the data of the setpoints it was measured at, but it references the DataArray objects of these parameters. Those objects only have the dimensionality at which they were set - ie the inner loop setpoint the same dimensionality as the measured parameter, but the outer loop setpoint(s) have lower dimensionality

When it’s first created, a DataArray has no dimensionality, you must call .nest for each dimension.

If preset_data is provided it is used to initialize the data, and the array can still be nested around it (making many copies of the data). Otherwise it is an error to nest an array that already has data.

Once the array is initialized, a DataArray acts a lot like a numpy array, because we delegate attributes through to the numpy array

  • parameter (Optional[Parameter]) – The parameter whose values will populate this array, if any. Will copy name, full_name, label, unit, and snapshot from here unless you provide them explicitly.

  • name (Optional[str]) – The short name of this array. TODO: use full_name as name, and get rid of short name

  • full_name (Optional[str]) – The complete name of this array. If the array is based on a parameter linked to an instrument, this is typically ‘<instrument_name>_<param_name>’

  • label (Optional[str]) – A description of the values in this array to use for axis and colorbar labels on plots.

  • snapshot (Optional[dict]) – Metadata snapshot to save with this array.

  • array_id (Optional[str]) – A name for this array that’s unique within its DataSet. Typically the full_name, but when the DataSet is constructed we will append ‘_<i>’ (i is an integer starting from 1) if necessary to differentiate arrays with the same id. TODO: this only happens for arrays provided to the DataSet constructor, not those added with add_array. Fix this! Also, do we really need array_id and full_name (let alone name but I’ve already said we should remove this)?

  • set_arrays (Optional[Tuple[DataArray]]) – If this array is being created with shape already, you can provide one setpoint array per dimension. The first should have one dimension, the second two dimensions, etc.

  • shape (Optional[Tuple[int]]) – The shape (as in numpy) of the array. Will be prepended with new dimensions by any calls to nest.

  • action_indices (Optional[Tuple[int]]) – If used within a Loop, these are the indices at each level of nesting within the Loop of the loop action that’s populating this array. TODO: this shouldn’t be in DataArray at all, the loop should handle converting this to array_id internally (maybe it already does?)

  • unit (Optional[str]) – The unit of the values stored in this array.

  • units (Optional[str]) – DEPRECATED, redirects to unit.

  • is_setpoint (bool) – True if this is a setpoint array, False if it is measured. Default False.

  • preset_data (Optional[Union[numpy.ndarray, Sequence]]) – Contents of the array, if already known (for example if this is a setpoint array). shape will be inferred from this array instead of from the shape argument.

SNAP_ATTRS = ('array_id', 'name', 'shape', 'unit', 'label', 'action_indices', 'is_setpoint')
COPY_ATTRS_FROM_INPUT = ('name', 'label', 'unit')
SNAP_OMIT_KEYS = ('ts', 'value', '__class__', 'set_arrays', 'shape', 'array_id', 'action_indices')
property data_set

The DataSet this array belongs to.

A DataArray can belong to at most one DataSet. TODO: make this a weakref

nest(size, action_index=None, set_array=None)[source]

Nest this array inside a new outer loop.

You cannot call nest after init_data unless this is a setpoint array. TODO: is this restriction really useful? And should we maintain a distinction between _preset and is_setpoint, or can wejust use is_setpoint?

  • size (int) – Length of the new loop.

  • action_index (Optional[int]) – Within the outer loop at this nesting level, which action does this array derive from?

  • set_array (Optional[DataArray]) – The setpoints of the new outer loop. If this DataArray is a setpoint array, you should omit both action_index and set_array, and it will reference itself as the inner setpoint array.


self, in case you want to construct the array with

chained method calls.

Return type



Create the actual numpy array to hold data.

The array will be sized based on either self.shape or data provided here.

Idempotent: will do nothing if the array already exists.

If data is provided, this array is marked as a preset meaning it can still be nested around this data. TODO: per above, perhaps remove this distinction entirely?


data (Optional[Union[numpy.ndarray, Sequence]]) – If provided, we fill the array with this data. Otherwise the new array will be filled with NaN.

  • ValueError – if self.shape does not match data.shape

  • ValueError – if the array was already initialized with a different shape than we’re about to create


Fill the (already existing) data array with nan.

__setitem__(loop_indices, value)[source]

Set data values.

Follows numpy syntax, allowing indices of lower dimensionality than the array, if value makes up the extra dimension(s)

Also update the record of modifications to the array. If you don’t want this overhead, you can access self.ndarray directly.

delegate_attr_objects: List[str] = ['ndarray']

A list of names (strings) of objects which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose attributes should be passed through to self.


Array length.

Must be explicitly delegated, because len() will look for this attribute to already exist.

flat_index(indices, index_fill=None)[source]

Generate the raveled index for the given indices.

This is the index you would have if the array is reshaped to 1D, looping over the indices from inner to outer.

  • indices (Sequence) – indices of an element or slice of this array.

  • index_fill (Optional[Sequence]) – extra indices to use if indices has less dimensions than the array, ie it points to a slice rather than a single element. Use zeros to get the beginning of this slice, and [d - 1 for d in shape] to get the end of the slice.


the resulting flat index.

Return type



Mark certain outstanding modifications as saved.


last_saved_index (int) – The flat index of the last point saved. If modified_range extends beyond this, the data past last_saved_index will still be marked modified, otherwise modified_range is cleared entirely.


Make previously saved parts of this array look unsaved (modified).

This can be used to force overwrite or rewrite, like if we’re moving or copying the DataSet.


Get the last index which has been synced from the server.

Will also initialize the array if this hasn’t happened already. TODO: seems hacky to init_data here.


the last flat index which has been synced from the server,

or -1 if no data has been synced.

Return type



Find changes since the last sync of this array.


synced_index (int) – The last flat index which has already been synced.


None if there is no new data. If there is,
returns a dict with keys:

start (int): the flat index of the first returned value. stop (int): the flat index of the last returned value. vals (List[float]): the new values

Return type

Union[dict, None]

apply_changes(start, stop, vals)[source]

Insert new synced values into the array.

To be be called in a PULL_FROM_SERVER DataSet using results returned by get_changes from the DataServer.

TODO: check that vals has the right length?

  • start (int) – the flat index of the first new value.

  • stop (int) – the flat index of the last new value.

  • vals (List[float]) – the new values


JSON representation of this DataArray.


Get the fraction of this array which has data in it.

Or more specifically, the fraction of the latest point in the array where we have touched it.


fraction of array which is complete, from 0.0 to 1.0

Return type


property units
delegate_attr_dicts: List[str] = []

A list of names (strings) of dictionaries which are (or will be) attributes of self, whose keys should be treated as attributes of self.

omit_delegate_attrs: List[str] = []

A list of attribute names (strings) to not delegate to any other dictionary or object.

to_xarray() xarray.core.dataarray.DataArray[source]

Return this DataArray as an xarray dataarray


DataArray in xarray format

classmethod from_xarray(xarray_dataarray: xarray.core.dataarray.DataArray, array_id: Optional[str] = None) qcodes.data.data_array.DataArray[source]

Create a DataArray from an xarray DataArray


array_id – Array id for the new DataArray. If None, then use the first data variable from the argument


Created xarray DataArray

qcodes.data.data_array.data_array_to_xarray_dictionary(data_array: qcodes.data.data_array.DataArray) Dict[str, Any][source]

Convert DataArray to a dictionary in xarray format.


data_array – The DataArray to convert.


A dictionary containing the data in xarray format.

Return type


qcodes.data.data_array.xarray_data_array_dictionary_to_data_array(array_id: str, array_dictionary: Dict[str, Any], is_setpoint: bool = False, preset_data=None)[source]

Convert xarray dictionary to a DataArray

This conversion is for bith the data array and the the internal xarray structure, e.g. the datavars and coords. :param array_id: Create the new DataArray with this id :param array_dictionary: Data to convert :param is_setpoint: Passed to the DataArray constructor :param preset_data: If None use the data from the dictionary, otherwise use the specified data.


A dictionary containing the data in xarray format.

Return type